Confined site Excavation

Small machines for narrow access and confined space operations
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Basement excavation and then underpinning
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Questions and Answers

To day Hindu News Paper on trade between Tamil&Roman ports-1BCE/4CE.Is it another mile stone in Tamil History?More evidence unearthed at ancient port of Muziris.Pattanam, a small village located 25 km north of Kochi, is the new pilgrimage spot on the international archaeological map. This quiet place, archaeologists now confirm, was once the flourishing port known to the Romans as Muziris and sung in praise by the Tamil Sangam poets as Muciri.Every year since 2005, excavations have yielded artefacts, structures and even a canoe in one instance to confirm this conclusion. This year has also been productive for archaeologists.A figure of a pouncing lion carved in great detail on a semi precious stone and a bright micro metal object with intricate designs are two of the special objects found during the ongoing excavations that began in February. Copper antimony rods, usually associated with cosmetic use, were also found.The semi precious stone with the lion figure measures about 2 cm and is rounded at the edge. It appears to be part of a pendant or a ring.The object is yet to be dated in a scientific manner, but going by the depth at which it was found, it is tentatively placed in the early historic period — 1st century BCE to 4th century CE. It was during this time that trade with the West Asian and Roman ports was extensive.

P.J. Cherian, director, Pattanam Excavation, thinks these ornamental metal objects and work on semi- precious stones reflect the fine artisanship that was prevalent at that time.

Dr. Cherian’s team has found a multitude of pottery shards, including that of a Roman amphora, early Chera coins, turquoise glazed pottery and cameo blanks (cameos were popular jewellery in ancient Rome). These attest to the existence of an active habitation and trading activities.

Despite abundant references in Roman and Tamil texts, Muziris, the famous western trade post, remained elusive to archaeologists for long.


[display_name id=”1″]Well!!!!!!!!Surely it is a mile stone….
Here is an old news about Pattanam:The radiocarbon analysis at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, has put the antiquity of Pattanam (Kerala, India) to the first millennium BCE. What is more, the studies suggest that the canoe found in a water-logged trench at Pattanam canoe could be the earliest known canoe in India.
The five samples that were analysed include charcoal samples and parts of the wooden canoe and bollards recovered from trenches. The mean calendar dates of these five samples place the antiquity of ancient maritime activity of Pattanam at about 500 BCE. The artefacts have revealed that the site had links with the Mediterranean, Red Sea, Arabian Sea and South China Sea rims since the Early Historic Period of South India.
“Pattanam is the first habitation site of the Iron Age ever unearthed in Kerala. Since previous enquiries were confined to megalithic burials, no firm dates were available for the Iron Age, except a few like Mangadu (circa 1000 BCE) and unnoni,” said P.J. Cherian, project director of Pattanam excavations. The radiocarbon dates from Pattanam is therefore expected to help in understanding the Iron Age chronology of Kerala.
“The indigenous people seems to have settled on the site during the Iron Age when this area was covered by beach sand. The occupation has been sparse and the sand deposit has mostly black-and-red ware and other typical `megalithic’ pottery,” added P.J. Cherian.
The Archaeological Survey of India has granted licence to Project Director P.J. Cherian for a second consecutive season and the work is scheduled to begin in February 2008. Besides the excavation activities at Pattanam, the licences are for archaeological exploration within 50 km around Kodungallur and underwater explorations in the water-bodies within 20 km radius.
What are some of justinians accomplishments as emperor of new rome?

Posted by Jennifer.
[display_name id=”1″]Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus (Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ιουστινιανός; known in English as Justinian I or Justinian the Great), AD 483 – 13 or 14 November 565, was the second member of the Justinian Dynasty (after his uncle, Justin I) and Eastern Roman Emperor from 527 until his death. He is considered a saint amongst Eastern Orthodox Christians, and is also commemorated by some Lutheran Churches; at the other end of the scale, his contemporary, Procopius, viewed Justinian as a cruel, venal, and incompetent ruler.One of the most important figures of Late Antiquity, Justinian’s rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Byzantine Empire. The impact of his administration extended far beyond the boundaries of his time and empire. Justinian’s reign is marked by the ambitious but ultimately failed renovatio imperii, or “restoration of the empire”. This ambition was expressed in the partial recovery of the territories of the Western Roman Empire, including the city of Rome itself. A still more resonant aspect of his legacy was the uniform rewriting of Roman law, the Corpus Juris Civilis, which is still the basis of civil law in many modern states. His reign also marked a blossoming of Byzantine culture, and his building program yielded such masterpieces as the church of Hagia Sophia, which was to be the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity for many centuries.A devastating outbreak of bubonic plague (see Plague of Justinian) in the early 540s marked the end of an age of splendor. The empire entered a period of territorial decline not to be reversed until the ninth century.Justinian was a prolific builder; the historian Procopius bears witness to his activities in this area. Under Justinian’s patronage the San Vitale in Ravenna, which features two famous mosaics representing Justinian and Theodora, was completed. Most notably, he had the Hagia Sophia, originally a basilica style church that had been burnt down during the Nika riots, splendidly rebuilt according to a completely different ground plan. This new cathedral, with its magnificent dome filled with mosaics, remained the centre of eastern Christianity for centuries. Another prominent church in the capital, the Church of the Holy Apostles, which had been in a very poor state near the end of the 5th century, was likewise rebuilt. Works of embellishment were not confined to churches alone: excavations at the site of the Great Palace of Constantinople have yielded several high-quality mosaics dating from Justinian’s reign, and a column topped by a bronze statue of Justinian on horseback and dressed in a military costume was erected in the Augustaeum in Constantinople in 543. Rivalry with other, more established patrons from the Constantinopolitan and exiled Roman aristocracy (like Anicia Juliana) may have enforced Justinian’s building activities in the capital as a means of strengthening his dynasty’s prestige.Justinian also strengthened the borders of the empire from Africa to the East through the construction of fortifications, and ensured Constantinople of its water supply through construction of underground cisterns. During his reign the large Sangarius Bridge was built in Bithynia, securing a major military supply route to the east. Furthermore, Justinian restored cities damaged by earthquake or war and built a new city near his place of birth called Justiniana Prima, which was intended to replace Thessalonica as the political and religious center of the Illyricum.In Justinian’s era, and partly under his patronage, Byzantine culture produced noteworthy historians, including Procopius and Agathias, and poets such as Paul the Silentiary and Romanus the Melodist flourished during his reign. On the other hand, centers of learning as the Platonic Academy in Athens and the famous law school of Beirut lost their importance during his reign. Despite Justinian’s passion for the glorious Roman past, the practice of choosing Roman consul, was allowed to lapse after 541.

What are some archaeological sites associated with Roma/Sinti people?

Posted by Kevin7
[display_name id=”1″]This is a very interesting question, and I was hoping to find a lot of material on the subject…but, since the Roma were/are nomadic people, there does not appear to be a lot of archaeological evidence. Also, there does not seem to be a lot of interest in the subject…unless I did not look in the right place.Sadly, the main archaeological sites are recent and connected with the Holocaust.Between March and September 2005, Adam Bartosz and colleagues visited 36 locations throughout Poland associated with Roma. The survey team identified 45 distinct sites and completed a survey questionnaire for each. Over 300 photographs were taken. This is the first extensive inventory and survey of Roma sites in Poland.At Chełmno, the Germans murdered people in gas chamber trucks. Among the victims,were Roma from the Gypsy camp (Zigeunerlager) that operated within the Łódź Ghetto. About 5,000 Roma, mostly from Austria and Germany, were confined in the ghetto. It existed from November 5, 1941 to January 12, 1942. All of its prisoners died within three months. Some died of disease and starvation but most were killed in the gas chambers. In 1963, a memorial was erected at the mass grave of the victims. An exhibition pavilion was built at the site in 1990. The exhibition notes that Roma were killed. The grounds are now a branch of the Regional Museum in Konin. Both the monument site and the exhibition pavilion are accessible from the public road. The museum is located next to the state road leading from Łódź to Koło. A path leads to the grave.Recent archeological excavation and research work has revealed many objects that belonged to the murdered prisoners — tools, keys, jewelry, clothing, kitchen utensils, and other everyday objects. There are plans to put these artifacts on exhibition. Because Chełmno is the place in Poland where the largest numbers of Roma were murdered, Roma organizations also are planning to conduct commemorative activities at this site.

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Excavation R.Toulouse & Fils


Confined space for a big machine operation

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